This page describes a Qedoc learning module or quiz entitled "Thyroid". You can download the module from this page to put on your computer. You can also launch the module straight off the web using the launch quiz link on the right-hand side of this page. Another way to access this quiz is to install the Qedoc Quiz Player and bring up its directory of downloadable quizzes. Whichever way you choose to use it, it's free.
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Synthesis, storage, release and actions of thyroid hormones. Replacement therapy in hypothyroidism. Use of drugs: carbimazole, propylthiouracil, iodine, beta-antagonists in hyperthyroidism.
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- A reduced iodine intake, with reduced plasma iodide concentration, will result in a decrease in hormone production and an increase in TSH secretion. An increased plasma iodide has the opposite effect, . Diets deficient in iodine eventually result in a continuous excessive compensatory secretion of TSH, and eventually in an increase in vascularity and (sometimes gross) hypertrophy of the gland.
- The thioureylene group of drugs comprises carbimazole, methimazole and propylthiouracil. Chemically, they are related to thiourea, and the thiocarbamide (S-C-N) group is essential for antithyroid activity. The most important unwanted effect is granulocytopenia. Rashes are more common, and other symptoms, such as headaches, nausea, jaundice and pain in the joints, can occur.
- The uptake of 131Iodine and other isotopes of iodine may be used diagnostically as a test of thyroid function. A tracer dose of the isotope is given orally or IV, and the amount accumulated by the thyroid is measured by a gamma scintillation counter placed over the gland. Another use for this drug is the treatment of thyroid cancer.
- Although the thyroid hormones directly control the activity of some of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, most effects are brought about in conjunction with other hormones, such as insulin, glucagon, the glucocorticoids and the catecholamines.
- Thyroid disorders are among the most common endocrine diseases, and subclinical thyroid disease is particularly prevalent in the middle-aged and elderly. They are accompanied by many extrathyroidal symptoms, particularly in the heart and skin.
- Hyperthyroidism may be treated pharmacologically or surgically. In general, surgery is used only when there are mechanical problems resulting from compression of the trachea, and it is usual to remove only part of the organ.
- The thyroid hormones produce a general increase in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and regulate these processes in most tissues, T3 being three to five times more active than T4 in this respect
- The thyroid is involved in the synthesis, storage and release of thyroid hormones [tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4)] and the synthesis, release of calcitonin. Its also involved in control of plasma Ca 2+
- TSH acts on receptors on the membrane of thyroid follicle cells through a mechanism that involves cAMP and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. It controls all aspects of thyroid hormone synthesis, including:
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis, a chronic autoimmune disease in which there is an immune reaction against thyroglobulin or some other component of thyroid tissue, can lead to hypothyroidism and myxoedema.
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